nilpotent adj : equal to zero when raised to a certain power
In mathematics, an element x of a ring R is called nilpotent if there exists some positive integer n such that xn = 0.
- This definition can be applied in particular to square matrices. The matrix
- A = \begin
- is nilpotent because A3 = 0. See nilpotent matrix for more.
- Assume that two elements a,b in a (non-commutative) ring R satisfy ab=0. Then the element c=ba is nilpotent (if non-zero) as c2=(ba)2=b(ab)a=0. An example with matrices (for a,b):
- A_1 = \begin
- Here A_1A_2=0,\; A_2A_1=A_2 .
No nilpotent element can be a unit (except in the trivial ring which has only a single element 0 = 1). All non-zero nilpotent elements are zero divisors.
An n-by-n matrix A with entries from a field is nilpotent if and only if its characteristic polynomial is t^n .
The nilpotent elements from a commutative ring form an ideal; this is a consequence of the binomial theorem. This ideal is the nilradical of the ring. Every nilpotent element in a commutative ring is contained in every prime ideal of that ring, and in fact the intersection of all these prime ideals is equal to the nilradical.
If x is nilpotent, then 1 − x is a unit, because xn = 0 entails
- (1 − x) (1 + x + x2 + ... + xn−1) = 1 − xn = 1.
Nilpotency in physics
An operator Q that satisfies Q^2=0 is nilpotent. The BRST charge is an important example in physics.
As linear operators form an associative algebra and thus a ring, this is a special case of the initial definition. More generally, in view of the above definitions, an operator Q is nilpotent if there is n∈N such that Qn=o (the zero function). Thus, a linear map is nilpotent iff it has a nilpotent matrix in some basis. Another example for this is the exterior derivative (again with n=2). Both are linked, also through supersymmetry and Morse theory, as shown by Edward Witten in a celebrated article.
The electromagnetic field of a plane wave without sources is nilpotent when it is expressed in terms of the algebra of physical space.
The following are examples of algebras and numbers that contain nilpotents:
- E Witten, Supersymmetry and Morse theory. J.Diff.Geom.17:661-692,1982.
- A. Rogers, The topological particle and Morse theory, Class. Quantum Grav. 17:3703-3714,2000 .
nilpotent in Catalan: Nilpotent
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nilpotent in Hebrew: נילפוטנטיות
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nilpotent in Chinese: 幂零元